Sunday, January 30, 2005

Models of teacher learning [quoting Ur, 1996]

MODELS OF TEACHER LEARNING
P5 Ur, 1996. A Course in Language Teaching, UK: Cambridge

Various models of teacher learning have been suggested; the three main ones, as described in Wallace (1993) are as follows:

1. The craft model
The trainee [teacher student] learns from the example of a ‘master teacher’, whom he/she observes and imitates.

2. The applied science model

The trainee studies theoretical course in applied linguistics and other related subjects, which are then, through the construction of an appropriate methodology, applied to classroom practice.

3. The reflective model

The trainee teaches or observes lessons; or recalls past experience, then reflects alone or in discussion with others, in order to work out theories about teaching; then tries these out again in practice. Such a cycle aims for continuous improvement and the development of personal theories of action (see Schon, 1983)

Which is likely to be most effective? Or, how do teachers learn most effectively?

What’s your opinion on this?

Aiden

23 comments:

Arnold Mühren said...

Hi Aiden,

Traditionally, student teachers have been mainly engaged in a combination of the first two models.

By and large, teaching practice (in schools) offers student teachers a view of "master teaching" and they may choose to imitate the example, or not. This depends on how well students can evaluate critically the quality of somebody else's teaching.

The second model puts theory first and then practice (I'm simplifying here for the sake of discussion). It is true that this model has always been wrought with problems. The motto "nothing is as practical as good theory" does not always resonate with teachers-to-be and there are various reasons for this (which is a discussion in itself).

The third model (reflective model) is getting more and more attention nowadays - which is a good thing. The starting point is the practice of teaching, the messy setting in which a teacher needs to find solutions to numerous problems, big and small, and to strive constantly for improvement of their teaching and their pupils' learning. The reflective teacher is aware that there are no easy recipes for better teaching and learning.

It is interesting to note that, to a large degree, the reflective model accommodates the basics from the other two models:

1) The reflective student teacher may have a "master teacher" around for mentoring, coaching and surely some modelling as well.

2) The reflective student will want to find clarification and support for their own hypotheses, theories, intuitions, actions, behaviour, hunches, etc. in the literature or in discussions with more experienced colleagues.

What do you think?

Arnold

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BT said...

Betty Tesh here with a few hints for new Teachers...

You're going to be a great teacher. You've got knowledge, enthusiasm, desire, motivation. What you don't have is experience.

And experience makes the difference between a potentially great teacher and a comfortably great teacher.

We've got over 68 combined years of experience to share, which is what we've done in...

"The Handy-Dandy Desktop Mentor."

No esoteric teaching methods. No field studies or carefully calibrated experiments. Just down-to-earth, helpful hints and suggestions to help you survive your first (few) years as a teacher.

We warn you about common pitfalls, give suggestions for getting along with fellow teachers, toss out a few classroom management techniques, offer advice on dealing with parents, and share secrets on organizing some of that "stuff" you've suddenly acquired.

If what you want is dull, dry treatise on pedagogy, or if you need a heavy meal of ibids and op.cits laced with quotes from learned professors of education, this book's not for you. It's quick and easy reading, a bit light-hearted, but as serious as an air strike about helping you bet the teacher you know you were meant to be.

A handbook for initially licensed, novice and beginning teachers that shares classroom management ideas, tips for getting along with educational personnel, suggestions for dealing with parents, and advice that good mentoring
teachers share for success in the classroom, written with humor by experienced educators.

As a new teacher, you won’t be doing battle with a supreme Evil like Sauron or traveling into the Cracks of Doom like Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee, but like those two Hobbits, you are ‘expected to find a way...’ (Book IV, Chpt. 3) A way to make learning fun, but keep control of the classroom; a way to reach thirty different children with thirty different learning styles, a way to teach whole-heartedly while fielding a barrage of forms, procedures, expectations and instructions.

"The Handy-Dandy Desktop Mentor." is available at my site for new Teachers.

BT said...

Betty Tesh here with a few hints for new Teachers...

You're going to be a great teacher. You've got knowledge, enthusiasm, desire, motivation. What you don't have is experience.

And experience makes the difference between a potentially great teacher and a comfortably great teacher.

We've got over 68 combined years of experience to share, which is what we've done in...

"The Handy-Dandy Desktop Mentor."

No esoteric teaching methods. No field studies or carefully calibrated experiments. Just down-to-earth, helpful hints and suggestions to help you survive your first (few) years as a teacher.

We warn you about common pitfalls, give suggestions for getting along with fellow teachers, toss out a few classroom management techniques, offer advice on dealing with parents, and share secrets on organizing some of that "stuff" you've suddenly acquired.

If what you want is dull, dry treatise on pedagogy, or if you need a heavy meal of ibids and op.cits laced with quotes from learned professors of education, this book's not for you. It's quick and easy reading, a bit light-hearted, but as serious as an air strike about helping you bet the teacher you know you were meant to be.

A handbook for initially licensed, novice and beginning teachers that shares classroom management ideas, tips for getting along with educational personnel, suggestions for dealing with parents, and advice that good mentoring
teachers share for success in the classroom, written with humor by experienced educators.

As a new teacher, you won’t be doing battle with a supreme Evil like Sauron or traveling into the Cracks of Doom like Frodo Baggins and Samwise Gamgee, but like those two Hobbits, you are ‘expected to find a way...’ (Book IV, Chpt. 3) A way to make learning fun, but keep control of the classroom; a way to reach thirty different children with thirty different learning styles, a way to teach whole-heartedly while fielding a barrage of forms, procedures, expectations and instructions.

"The Handy-Dandy Desktop Mentor." is available at my site for new Teachers.

Thork said...

I like to leave a little “wisdom” to jolt your into thinking about goals you may have set over the past few years, months and days, after a good blog read.

Not earth shattering by any means, and probably know this, but have you actually practiced it lately?

You know – gnitteS laoG

Jot down a few new ones today or visit a few old ones that would make you a better person, better business person or a better provider or some you haven't been able to keep for some reason or other.

Today’s tidbit…

There is a difference in setting your goals and setting them effectively. Anyone can set a goal, but doing it effectively means that it will actually get done.

There are so many things that you can do to better your life, but if you don't know how to go about it you are stuck.

The following guidelines will help you to set effective goals and help you manage your time in an efficient manner that will cause those goals to become reality.

State each goal as a positive statement

Express your goals in a positive way. That is a key component to setting goals that you can attain.

How often have you been excited to accomplish a goal that didn't even sound good when you brought it up? If you are not comfortable or happy with the goals that you have set, the likelihood of you succeeding is pretty low.

If you want to express your goals in a positive way, you simply have to first think of a goal that puts a smile on your face when you imagine it completed. Why would you want to set a goal that made you frown, cringe or cry?

When you are beginning to set your goals it helps when you are talking about them to others in a manner that states your actions as positives because it will have others seeing it as a positive as well.

That will garner you a great deal more support. In the end, don't we all need a little support when we are trying to do something positive in our lives?

Be precise

Set a precise goal that includes starting dates, times and amounts so that you can properly measure your achievement.

If you do this, you will know exactly when you have achieved the goal, and can take complete satisfaction from having achieved it.

Being precise in setting your goals is no more than setting them with exact details. It is easier this way because then you can follow a step-by-step format. That's all there is to it.

Set priorities

When you have several goals, give each a specific priority. This helps you to avoid feeling overwhelmed by too many goals, and helps to direct your attention to the most important ones and follow each in succession. Setting priorities will force you into the step-by-step format above.

By doing the most important first and moving to the least important in succession, you are enabling each task to be easier than the last. It causes the accomplishment of each task to get easier and easier which will encourage you to complete your goal.

There’s a few more “tidbits” for you at Lifetime Goals

Don't worry, they're FREE!

Enjoy your day – And have a GREAT one!

By the way, learn how to Make New Years Resolutions you can keep there also.

BenTansk said...

Thanks for a good read on your blog.

I’m leaving a little “teaser” for you here to start you thinking about something you may have disregarded for awhile.

Perhaps it will make a difference in your day, month or year. Who knows, it could change your life!

I hope this is of great benefit to you, and maybe you can pass it on…

How to Begin to Achieve Your Goals

Once you have set your lifetime goals, the best thing that you can do is set a 25 year plan of smaller goals that you should complete if you are to reach your lifetime plan.
From there you can just shorten your overall goal spans for example, you set a 5 year plan, 1 year plan, 6 month plan, and 1 month plan of progressively smaller goals that you should reach to achieve your lifetime goals.

Each of these should be based on the previous plan. It is the best way to begin to achieve a lifetime that is filled with and results in a life without any failed wishes. It results in a life without regret.

You see, by starting out slowly, you are giving yourself the chance to realize and work on achieving the goals that you set out to.

Nobody ever succeeds at attaining a goal that was forced through. Those that tried never really got what they were hoping for. In rushing through and trying to achieve your goals quickly you will likely miss a few key aspects that can really change your outcome.

Think of it this way; if you were to run a 10K marathon and decided to take a cab for half of the journey; have you really achieved that goal? Would you be satisfied when you crossed the finish line?

It would be a hollow victory that could only provide a moments happiness.

Finally set a daily to do list of the things that you should do today to work towards your lifetime goals.

At an early stage these goals may be to read books and gather information on the achievement of your goals. This will help you to improve the quality and realism of your goal setting and in effect; make it easier to achieve them.

You also have to review your plans, and make sure that they fit the way in which you want to live your life.

Once you have decided what your first set of plans will be, keep the process going by reviewing and updating your to-do list on a daily basis.

You have to periodically review the longer term plans, and change them to reflect your changing priorities and experiences in your life.

Have a GREAT day, and set a few new goals while you’re at it!

You can find more "tidbits" on goal setting at Reachable Goals.

PS. If this was helpful to you and you think someone else might be able to use it please pass it on. You never know, you could change someones life with this simple information!

TotalIncome said...

Teaching

HELLO aiden

I was going to leave a little tip on New Years Resolutions and how to make the best of them.

Unfortunately, I would not be able to keep it brief.

Goal setting takes effort and you really have to know how to do it to do it well. Especially the follow-up.

That's why I've included a lot of FREE goal setting information on my website, to help folks like you be more successful.

In fact, you can start now, and get a head start on the new year - and the rest of your life.

Think goal setting isn't important?

Spend a little time at Developing Goals and you'll change your mind.

Have a GREAT day!

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jimmy said...

Hello aiden, I was searching for some info on make money at home and stumbled across your blog. Even though Models of teacher learning [quoting Ur, 1996] was different than what I thought, it was different enough to get my attention. I really don't understand how I got your page while looking for make money at home. Anywho I loved your blog and am very happy I stopped by. Thanks for the interesting read.

jimmy said...

Good Day aiden, I just did a search for personal development and for some reason your site was highlighted! I have a real interest in Models of teacher learning [quoting Ur, 1996] and was hoping your site could lead me to more info. Unfortunately it did not have any sources for personal development
Thanks Anyway!
PS: I really enjoyed your read even though it was not what I had anticipated.

Avari said...

Every so often a post like Models of teacher learning [quoting Ur, 1996] grabs my attention while I'm chasing around for the latest
and greatest info about self improvement tapes . And what a pleasure to read someone who apparently not only knows what they're talking about, but apparently also walks the talk. Thank you aiden . Is there any chance you'll be commenting on self improvement tapes at any stage?

tonyyy said...

Good Day aiden, I just did a search for personal development and for some reason your site was highlighted! I have a real interest in Models of teacher learning [quoting Ur, 1996] and was hoping your site could lead me to more info. Unfortunately it did not have any sources for personal development
Thanks Anyway!
PS: I really enjoyed your read even though it was not what I had anticipated.